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03 Financial Statements

Note 3: Financial Position

This section analyses the Group’s assets used to conduct its operations and the operating liabilities incurred as a result. Employee-related information is disclosed in the People and Relationships section.

3.1: Financial Assets

  2018
$'000
2017
$'000
3.1A: Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash on hand or on deposit 487,754 401,974
Total cash and cash equivalents 487,754 401,974

Accounting Policy

Cash is recognised at its nominal amount as this is considered fair value. Cash and cash equivalents includes:

  1. cash on hand; and
  2. demand deposits in bank accounts with an original maturity of three months or less that are readily convertible to known amounts of cash and subject to insignificant risk of changes in value.

For the purposes of the cash flow statement, cash and cash equivalents include cash on hand and at bank, and demand deposits in bank accounts with an original maturity of three months or less, to maintain liquidity.

  2018
$'000
2017
$'000
3.1B: Trade and Other Receivables
Goods and services receivables in connection with    
Trade debtors – external parties 250
Total goods and services receivables 250
Other receivables    
Unbilled receivables 199 365
Interest 9,781 5,415
Dividends and distributions 1,803 1,873
Other 680 324
Total other receivables 12,463 7,977
Total trade and other receivables (gross) 12,463 8,227
Less: Impairment allowance
Total trade and other receivables (net) 12,463 8,227


Credit terms for goods and services were within 30 days (2017: 30 days).

Interest receivable is due monthly, quarterly or upon maturity, depending on the terms of the investment.

Accounting Policy for Financial Assets

Initial Recognition and Measurement

The Group classifies its financial assets, at initial recognition, in the following categories:

  1. financial assets at fair value through profit or loss (‘FVPL’);
  2. held-to-maturity (‘HTM’) investments;
  3. AFS financial assets; and
  4. loans and receivables.

The classification depends on the nature and purpose of the financial assets and is determined at the time of initial recognition.

All financial assets are recognised initially at fair value plus, in the case of financial assets not recorded at fair value through profit or loss, transaction costs that are attributable to the acquisition of the financial asset.

Financial Assets at FVPL

Financial assets at FVPL include financial assets held for trading and financial assets designated upon initial recognition at fair value through profit or loss. Financial assets are classified as financial assets at FVPL where the financial assets:

  1. have been acquired principally for the purpose of selling in the near future;
  2. are derivatives that are not designated and effective as a hedging instrument; or
  3. are parts of an identified portfolio of financial instruments that the Group manages together and has a recent actual pattern of short-term profit-taking.

Financial assets at fair value through profit or loss are stated at fair value, with any resultant gain or loss recognised in the surplus in the statement of comprehensive income. The net gain or loss recognised in surplus incorporates any interest earned on the financial asset.

AFS Financial Assets

AFS financial assets include units in trusts, equity investments and debt securities. Units and equity investments classified as AFS are those that are neither classified as held for trading nor designated at fair value through profit or loss. Debt securities in this category are those that are intended to be held for an indefinite period of time and that may be sold in response to needs for liquidity or in response to changes in market conditions.

After initial measurement, AFS financial assets are subsequently measured at fair value with unrealised gains or losses recognised as other comprehensive income and credited in the reserves until the investment is derecognised, at which time the cumulative gain or loss is recognised in other gains in the statement of comprehensive income, or the investment is determined to be impaired when the cumulative loss is reclassified from the reserves to the statement of comprehensive income as a write-down and impairment of assets. Interest earned while holding AFS financial assets is reported as interest income using the effective interest method in the statement of comprehensive income.

The Group evaluates whether the ability and intention to sell its AFS financial assets in the near term is still appropriate. When, in rare circumstances, the Group is unable to trade these financial assets due to inactive markets, the Group may elect to reclassify these financial assets if Management has the ability and intention to hold the assets for the foreseeable future or until maturity.

For a financial asset reclassified from the AFS category, the fair value carrying amount at the date of reclassification becomes its new amortised cost and any previous gain or loss on the asset that has been recognised in equity is amortised to profit or loss over the remaining life of the investment using the effective interest rate. Any difference between the new amortised cost and the maturity amount is also amortised over the remaining life of the asset using the effective interest rate. If the asset is subsequently determined to be impaired, then the amount recorded in equity is reclassified as a write-down and impairment of assets in the statement of comprehensive income.

Where a reliable fair value cannot be established for unlisted investments in equity instruments, these instruments are valued at cost.

HTM Investments

Non-derivative financial assets with fixed or determinable payments and fixed maturity dates that the Group has the positive intent and ability to hold to maturity are classified as HTM investments. HTM investments are recorded at amortised cost using the effective interest method less any impairment, with revenue recognised on an effective yield basis.

The Group had no HTM investments during the financial years ended 30 June 2018 and 2017.

Loans and Receivables

Loans and receivables are non-derivative financial assets with fixed or determinable payments that are not quoted in an active market. After initial recognition, loans and receivables are measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method less impairment. Interest is recognised by applying the effective interest rate.

This category generally applies to short-term investments, loans and advances and other financial assets.

Derecognition

A financial asset (or, where applicable, a part of a financial asset or part of a group of similar financial assets) is primarily derecognised (i.e. removed from the Group’s statement of financial position) when:

  • The rights to receive cash flows from the asset have expired; or
  • The Group has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from the asset or has assumed an obligation to pay the received cash flows in full without material delay to a third party under a ‘pass-through’ arrangement; and either (a) the Group has transferred substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, or (b) the Group has neither transferred nor retained substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, but has transferred control of the asset.

Derivative financial instruments

The Group may use derivative financial instruments to manage exposures to interest rate and foreign exchange risk. These include foreign exchange contracts, interest rate and cross-currency swaps, futures contracts and forward rate agreements. Derivatives are initially recognised at fair value on the date a derivative is entered into and are subsequently remeasured to their fair value at each reporting date. Derivatives are carried as assets when their fair value is positive (in the money) and as liabilities when their fair value is negative (out of the money). Any gains and losses arising from changes in the fair value of derivatives, except those that qualify for hedge accounting, are taken through profit or loss.

Impairment of Financial Assets

Financial assets held at amortised cost

The Group is required to ascertain the extent to which its loans are likely to be recoverable. Given the risk position that may be assumed by the Group in its various loans (e.g. senior debt, unsecured debt, subordinated or mezzanine debt, longer terms, policy risk in relation to the Renewable Energy Target, electricity price volatility, etc) it is considered possible that the Group will not fully recover 100% of the principal relating to all the loans it makes, although the Group has not identified any individual loans that are not expected to be recoverable at the reporting date.

At the end of each reporting period the Group assesses whether there is objective evidence that a financial asset or group of financial assets is impaired. A financial asset or a group of financial assets is impaired (and impairment charges are recognised) if there is objective evidence of impairment as a result of one or more events that occurred after the initial recognition of the asset (a ‘loss event’) and that loss event (or events) has an impact on the estimated future cash flows of the financial asset or group of financial assets that can be reliably estimated. Objective evidence that a financial asset or group of assets is impaired includes observable data that comes to the attention of the Group about the following loss events:

  1. significant financial difficulty of the issuer or obligor;
  2. a breach of contract, such as a default or delinquency in interest or principal payments;
  3. the Group, for economic or legal reasons relating to the borrower’s financial difficulty, granting to the borrower a concession that the Group would not otherwise consider;
  4. it becoming probable that the borrower will enter bankruptcy or other financial reorganisation;
  5. the disappearance of an active market for that financial asset because of financial difficulties; or
  6. observable data indicating that there is a measurable decrease in the estimated future cash flows from a group of financial assets since the initial recognition of those assets, although the decrease cannot yet be identified with the individual financial assets in the group, including:
    1. adverse changes in the payment status of borrowers in the group; or
    2. national or local economic conditions that correlate with defaults on the assets in the group.

The Group first assesses whether objective evidence of impairment exists individually for financial assets that are individually significant, and individually or collectively for financial assets that are not individually significant. If there is objective evidence that an impairment loss on loans and receivables has been incurred, the amount of the loss is measured as the difference between the asset’s carrying amount and the present value of estimated future cash flows (excluding future credit losses that have not been incurred) discounted at the financial asset’s original effective interest rate. The carrying amount of the asset is reduced either directly or through the use of an allowance account. The amount of the loss is recognised in profit or loss.

If the Group determines that no objective evidence of impairment exists for an individually assessed financial asset, whether significant or not, it includes the asset in a group of financial assets with similar credit risk characteristics and collectively assesses them for impairment. Assets that are individually assessed for impairment and for which an impairment is, or continues to be, recognised are not included in a collective assessment of impairment.

The Group’s loans are early in their life (of what can be 10+ year fixed terms) and the Group does not have a history from which to ascertain the likely extent of ultimate defaults and consequential losses. Therefore, in accordance with Australian banking industry practice, the Group applies the following loan loss provisioning methodology to ascertain the extent to which its loans are likely to be impaired.

For the purposes of a collective evaluation of impairment, financial assets are grouped on the basis of similar credit risk characteristics (i.e. on the basis of the Group’s grading process that considers asset type, industry, geographical location, collateral type, past-due status and other relevant factors). Those characteristics are relevant to the estimation of future cash flows for groups of such assets by being indicative of the debtors’ ability to pay all amounts due according to the contractual terms of the assets being evaluated.

Estimates of changes in future cash flows for groups of assets reflect, and are directionally consistent with, changes in related observable data from period to period (for example, changes in unemployment rates, property prices, payment status, or other factors indicative of changes in the probability of losses in the group and their magnitude). The Group has adopted a loan impairment provisioning methodology in order to ascertain the extent to which its loans are likely to be impaired but not reported. In accordance with Australian banking industry practice this incorporates internal credit risk indicators of a Shadow Credit Rating (SCR) mapped to probability of default rates and Loss Given Default (LGD). The methodology is maintained throughout the life of each loan, is adjusted for amortisation, is based on ‘through the cycle’ LGDs and utilises a duration of the loss emergence period of 12-18 months.

In addition to the statistically modelled output, a Management adjustment overlay is applied. The purpose of this overlay is to compensate for the unique risks of the Group’s portfolio as well as specific model and data limitations. The methodology and assumptions used for estimating future cash flows are reviewed regularly by the Group to reduce any differences between loss estimates and actual loss experience. When a loan or a part of a loan is uncollectable, it is written off against the related provision for loan impairment. Such loans are written off after all the necessary procedures have been completed and the amount of the loss has been determined. Subsequent recoveries of amounts previously written off decrease the amount of the charge for loan impairment in the statement of comprehensive income. If, in a subsequent period, the amount of the impairment charge decreases and the decrease can be related objectively to an event occurring after the impairment was recognised (such as an improvement in the debtor’s credit rating), the previously recognised impairment charge is reversed by adjusting the provision account. The amount of the reversal is recognised in the statement of comprehensive income.

  2018
$'000
2017
$'000
3.1C: Loans and Advances
Gross funded loans 1,958,750 783,318
Concessional loan discount on drawn loans (15,010) (7,068)
Funded loans, net of concessionality discount 1,943,740 776,250
Less impairment allowance (7,036) (5,048)
Net loans and advances 1,936,704 771,202
Maturity analysis loans and advances, net of concessionality:    
Overdue or impaired 3,201
Due in 1 year 65,396 99,964
Due in 1 year to 5 years 848,367 446,349
Due after 5 years 1,029,977 226,736
Funded loans, net of concessionality discount 1,943,740 776,250
Less impairment allowance (7,036) (5,048)
Net loans and advances 1,936,704 771,202


Concentration of Risk

The largest single exposure in the loan portfolio at 30 June 2018 was for an amount of $196.3 million (2017: $149.5 million). The following table shows the diversification of investments in the loan portfolio at 30 June:

  2018 2017
  No. of Loans Loan Value
$’000
% No. of Loans Loan Value
$’000
%
< $10 million 53 75,130 4% 70 84,949 11%
$10-$50 million 24 562,744 29% 15 420,966 54%
$50-$100 million 12 840,653 43% 2 120,792 16%
> $100 million 3 465,213 24% 1 149,543 19%
Total loans and advances, net of concessionality discount 92 1,943,740 100% 88 776,250 100%


The following table shows the diversification of investments within the loan portfolio at 30 June by credit quality. Since the loans made by the Group are (in the main) to entities that will not have a formal credit rating, the Corporation has developed a Shadow Credit Ratings (‘SCR’) system. These are internal risk indicators used by the Group to assess the default risks of its debt instruments. The SCR assesses the probability of seeing the counterparty default under its obligations. The SCR is determined by a risk matrix based on internal risk assessments of the counterparty involved, the business risk it faces and the financial risk it has as a result of the debt it carries (including all new debt proposed in the investment opportunity).

   2018 2017
   Loan Value
$’000
% Loan Value
$’000
%
Corporation’s Shadow Credit Rating        
AAA 13,770 1%
AA+ to AA– 145,359 7% 133,570 17%
A+ to A– 197,098 10% 1,389 0%
BBB+ to BBB– 652,710 34% 414,179 54%
BB+ to BB– 872,060 45% 187,038 24%
B+ to B– 62,743 3% 39,277 5%
CCC 797 0%
Total loans and advances, net of concessionality discount 1,943,740 100% 776,250 100%


Impairment allowance

  2018
$'000
2017
$'000
Reconciliation of the Impairment Allowance:    
Movements in relation to loans and receivables    
As at 1 July 5,048 2,919
Increase recognised in write-down and impairment of assets 2,683 2,129
Utilised for loan written off (695)
Closing balance at 30 June 7,036 5,048
  2018
$'000
2017
$'000
3.1D: Available-For-Sale Financial Assets
Quoted:    
Debt securities 1,042,797 563,870
  1,042,797 563,870
Unquoted:    
Equities and units in trusts 353,772 239,075
  353,772 239,075
Total AFS financial assets 1,396,569 802,945


Concentration of risk and impairment – AFS financial assets

Equity investments are amounts held by way of shares in publicly-listed entities, units in unincorporated unit trust structures or direct holdings in unlisted companies where the Group is not deemed to have significant influence. During the 2018 financial year, the Group recorded an impairment charge of $5 million (2017: $Nil) in respect of its holding in an unlisted company invested in under the Innovation Fund mandate.

The largest single exposure in the AFS portfolio at 30 June 2018 was for an amount of $133.8 million (2017: $120.1 million).

The following table shows the diversification of investments in the available-for-sale portfolio at 30 June:

  2018 2017
  No. of Securities Investment Value
$’000
% No. of Securities Investment Value
$’000
%
< $10 million 9 27,792 2% 400% 14,290 2%
$10–$50 million 15 491,216 35% 7 198,869 25%
$50–$100 million 6 430,350 31% 3 265,443 33%
> $100 million 4 447,211 32% 3 324,343 40%
Total AFS financial assets 34 1,396,569 100% 17 802,945 100%


The following table shows the diversification of the AFS financial assets at 30 June 2018 by SCR:

  2018 2017
  Value
$'000
% Value
$'000
%
Corporation’s Shadow Credit Rating        
AAA 33,994 3% 29,236 4%
AA+ to AA– 920,313 66% 495,864 62%
A+ to A– 68,413 5% 18,770 2%
BBB+ to BBB– 20,077 1% 20,000 2%
Unrated – equities and units in trusts 353,772 25% 239,075 30%
Total AFS financial assets 1,396,569 100% 802,945 100%
  2018
$'000
2017
$'000
3.1E: Other Financial Assets
Restricted deposit accounts with financial institutions 163,507 278,380
Total other financial assets 163,507 278,380


Maturity analysis of other financial assets

Restricted deposit accounts with financial institutions are expected to mature within 12 months; however, the funds are not expected to be returned to the Group as they are contractually restricted to funding committed credit facilities and committed investments. Accordingly, the maturity analysis shown below is the anticipated maturity date at which the funds are expected to be repaid to the Group.

  2018
$'000
2017
$'000
Maturity analysis for other financial assets (gross)    
Due in 1 year 87
Due in 1 year to 5 years 92,595
Due after 5 years 163,507 185,698
Total other financial assets 163,507 278,380


Concentration of risk – other financial assets

Restricted deposit accounts with financial institutions are amounts that have been funded into accounts held with financial institutions where they are contractually limited to being applied against specific loans and receivables or investments that the Group has entered into. The funds are held until such time as they are either drawn down by the counterparty or the availability period expires under the facilities. The amounts are held with Australian banks, each of which have a credit rating of no less than AA–. No single bank holds more than 50% of the total.

The following table shows the diversification of anticipated projects/loans that the investments are expected to be applied against at 30 June by credit quality using the Corporation’s SCR methodology:

  2018 2017
  $'000 % $'000  %
Corporation’s Shadow Credit Rating        
BBB+ to BBB– 10,173 6% 63,834 23%
BB+ to BB– 120,459 74% 169,546 61%
Unrated – equities and units in trusts 32,875 20% 45,000 16%
Total restricted deposit accounts 163,507 100% 278,380 100%


Provision for impairment – Other financial assets

An impairment will be recognised if it is likely that other financial assets will not be recovered in full. In this instance a specific provision will be created for impairment. There was no impairment in 2018 (2017: $Nil).

  2018
$'000
2017
$'000
3.1F: Derivative Financial (Liabilities)/Assets
Cross Currency swaps (241) 225
Total derivative financial (liabilities)/assets (241) 225
Maturity analysis of derivative financial (liabilities)/assets:    
Due in 1 year to 5 years (241) 225
Total derivative financial (liabilities)/assets (241) 225


Accounting Policy

Derivative financial instruments are initially recognised at fair value on the date on which a derivative contract is entered into and are subsequently remeasured at fair value. Derivatives are carried as financial assets when the fair value is positive and as financial liabilities when the fair value is negative.

Any gains or losses arising from changes in the fair value of derivatives are taken directly to profit or loss, except for the effective portion of cash flow hedges, which is recognised in Other Comprehensive Income and later reclassified to profit or loss when the hedge item affects profit or loss.

  2018
$'000
2017
$'000
3.1G: Equity Accounted Investments
Balance at 1 July 8,401
Investments made during the year 81,835 9,040
Distributions received during the year (506)
Share of income/(loss) of Associates and Joint Ventures (2,235) (639)
Balance at 30 June 87,495 8,401
  2018 2017
  Investment
$'000
Ownership
%
Investment
$'000
Ownership
%
Equity Accounted Investments        
Artesian Clean Energy Seed Fund 2,420 38.1% 2,500 38.1%
Granville Harbour Wind Farm 4,127 25.0%
High Income Sustainable Office Trust 10,774 48.8% 48.8%
Macquarie Agriculture Fund 59,178 34.4%
Ross River Solar Farm 10,996 25.0% 5,901 25.0%
Stony Gap Wind Farm 15.4% 15.4%
Total investments accounted for using the equity method 87,495   8,401  


The Group has not made any loans to Associates and Joint Ventures at 30 June 2018 (2017: $Nil). The Group has procured a bank guarantee on behalf of Ross River Solar Farm the balance of which was $12.5 million at 30 June 2018 (2017: $13.7 million) The Group has no other contingent liabilities in relation to investments in Associates and Joint Ventures at 30 June 2018 (2017: $Nil).

At 30 June 2018 the Group had committed to invest up to a further $282 million (2017 $148 million) in the above equity accounted investments.

Accounting Policy

Investments in Associates

The Group’s investments in its associates are accounted for using the equity method.

Under the equity method, investments in the associates are carried in the Group’s statement of financial position at cost as adjusted for post-acquisition changes in the Group’s share of net assets of the associates. Goodwill relating to an associate is included in the carrying amount of the investment. After the application of the equity method, the Group determines whether it is necessary to recognise any impairment loss with respect to the net investment in associates.

Jointly Controlled Entities

Interests in jointly controlled entities in which the entity is a venturer (and so has joint control) are accounted for using the equity method.

3.2: Non-Financial Assets

3.2A: Reconciliation of the Opening and Closing Balances of Property, Plant and Equipment and
Computer Software
Reconciliation of the opening and closing balances of property, plant and equipment and computer software for 2018:
  Plant and equipment
$'000
Computer software
$'000
Total
$'000
As at 1 July 2017      
Gross book value 1,650 951 2,601
Accumulated depreciation and amortisation (706) (467) (1,173)
Total as at 1 July 2017 944 484 1,428
Additions:      
By purchase or internally developed 959 328 1,287
Depreciation and amortisation expense (498) (394) (892)
Disposals:      
Gross book value (105) (224) (329)
Accumulated depreciation and amortisation 92 224 316
Total as at 30 June 2018 1,392 418 1,810
Total as at 30 June 2018 represented by:      
Gross book value 2,504 1,055 3,559
Accumulated depreciation and amortisation (1,112) (637) (1,749)
Total as at 30 June 2018 1,392 418 1,810


No indicators of impairment were found for property, plant and equipment or computer software.

No property, plant or equipment or computer software are expected to be disposed of within the next 12 months.

Accounting Policy

Asset Recognition Threshold

Purchases of property, plant and equipment are recognised initially at cost in the statement of financial position, except for purchases costing less than $2,000, which are expensed in the year of acquisition (other than where they form part of a group of similar items which are significant in total).

The initial cost of an asset includes an estimate of the cost of dismantling and removing the item and restoring the site on which it is located. This is particularly relevant to ‘make good’ provisions in property leases taken up by the Group where an obligation exists to restore premises to original condition. These costs are included in the value of the Group’s leasehold improvements with a corresponding provision for the ‘make good’ recognised.

The Group’s computer software comprises purchased software for internal use. These assets are carried at cost less accumulated amortisation and any accumulated impairment losses.

Revaluations

Following initial recognition at cost, property, plant and equipment are carried at fair value. The valuation is based on internal assessment by Management to ensure that the carrying amounts of the assets do not differ materially from their fair values. As at 30 June 2018, the carrying amounts of property, plant and equipment approximate their fair value.

Revaluation adjustments are made on a class basis. Any revaluation increment is credited to equity under the heading of ‘asset revaluation reserve’ except to the extent that it reversed a previous revaluation decrement of the same asset class that was previously recognised in the surplus/deficit. Revaluation decrements for a class of assets are recognised directly in the surplus/deficit except to the extent that they reverse a previous revaluation increment for that class.

Any accumulated depreciation as at the revaluation date is eliminated against the gross carrying amount of the asset and the asset restated to the revalued amount.

Depreciation and Amortisation

Depreciable property, plant and equipment assets are written-off to their estimated residual values over their estimated useful lives to the Group using, in all cases, the straight-line method of depreciation. 

Depreciation and amortisation rates applying to each class of depreciable asset are based on the following useful lives:

Property, plant and equipment

Office equipment - 3 to 5 years
Leasehold improvements - 5 years (or the remaining lease period if shorter)
Furniture and fittings - 5 years (or the remaining lease period if shorter)
Computer equipment - 2 to 3 years
Computer software - straight-line basis over anticipated useful lives (typically 2 to 3 years)

Derecognition

An item of property, plant and equipment is derecognised upon disposal or when no further future economic benefits are expected from its use or disposal.

An item of software is derecognised when the licence expires or when no further future economic benefits are expected from its use or disposal.

3.3: Payables and Unearned Income

  2018
$'000
2017
$'000
3.3A: Suppliers
Trade creditors and accruals 2,974 2,162
Total suppliers 2,974 2,162


Settlement of supplier balances was usually made within 30 days.

  2018
$'000
2017
$'000
3.3B: Unearned Income
Unearned establishment and commitment fees income 32,202 15,678
Unearned income expected to be recognised:    
No more than 12 months 4,392 2,377
More than 12 months 27,810 13,301
Total unearned income 32,202 15,678

  2018
$'000
2017
$'000
3.3C: Other Payables
Wages and salaries 5,843 4,396
Superannuation 126 141
FBT liability 7 7
Lease liability 804 560
Other 12 2
Total other payables 6,792 5,106


Accounting Policy

Initial Recognition and Measurement

Financial liabilities are classified as either financial liabilities ‘at fair value through profit or loss’ or other financial liabilities. Financial liabilities are recognised upon ‘trade date’.

Financial Liabilities at FVPL

Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss are initially measured at fair value. Subsequent fair value adjustments are recognised in the statement of comprehensive income. The net gain or loss recognised in the statement of comprehensive income incorporates any interest paid on the financial liability.

Other Financial Liabilities

Other financial liabilities, including borrowings and trade creditors/accruals, are initially measured at fair value, net of transaction costs. These liabilities are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method, with interest expense recognised on an effective yield basis.

The effective interest method is a method of calculating the amortised cost of a financial liability and of allocating interest expense over the relevant period. The effective interest rate is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash payments through the expected life of the financial liability; or, where appropriate, a shorter period.

Trade creditors and accruals and other payables are recognised at amortised cost. Liabilities are recognised to the extent that the goods or services have been received (and irrespective of having been invoiced).

Derecognition

A financial liability is derecognised when the obligation under the liability is discharged or cancelled, or expires. When an existing financial liability is replaced by another from the same lender on substantially different terms, or the terms of an existing liability are substantially modified, such an exchange or modification is treated as the derecognition of the original liability and the recognition of a new liability. The difference in the respective carrying amounts is recognised in the statement of comprehensive income.

3.4: Other Provisions

  Provision for
concessional investments
$'000
Provision for
make good
$'000
 Provision for
irrevocable commitments
$'000
Total
$'000
As at 1 July 2017 19,505 129 612 20,246
Additional provisions made 12,173 221 2,625 15,019
Amount reversed upon cancellation of an existing loan facility (201) (201)
Offset to loans and advances (22,868) (22,868)
Total at 30 June 2018 8,609 350 3,237 12,196


Provision for concessional investments relates to the cumulative concessional loan charge, discussed in Note 2.1C, that has been recognised for commitments that have not yet been funded. The provision is offset against loans and advances as they are funded.

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